We are blessed with Solar Energy in abundance at no cost. The solar radiation incident on the surface of the earth can be conveniently utilized for the benefit of human society. One of the popular devices that harness the solar energy is solar hot water system (SHWS).
A solar water heater consists of a collector to collect solar energy and an insulated storage tank to store hot water. The solar energy incident on the absorber panel coated with selected coating transfers the hat to the riser pipes underneath the absorber panel. The water passing through the risers get heated up and is delivered the storage tank. The re-circulation of the same water through absorber panel in the collector raises the temperature to 80 C (Maximum) in a good sunny day. The total system with solar collector, storage tank and pipelines is called solar hot water system.
Broadly, the solar water heating systems are of two categories. They are : closed loop system and open loop system. In the first one, heat exchangers are installed to protect the system from hard water obtained from borewells or from freezing temperatures in the cold regions. In the other type, either thermosyphon or forced circulation system, the water in the system is open to the atmosphere at one point or other. The thermosyphon systems are simple and relatively inexpensive. They are suitable for domestic and small institutional systems, provided the water is treated and potable in quality. The forced circulation systems employ electrical pumps to circulate the water through collectors and storage tanks.
The choice of system depends on heat requirement, weather conditions,heat transfer fluid quality, space availability, annual solar radiation, etc. The SHW systems are economical, pollution free and easy for operation in warm countries likeours.
Based on the collector system, solar water heaters can be of two types.
Solar water heating is now a mature technology. Wide spread utilization of solar water heaters can reduce a significant portion of the conventional energy being used for heating water in homes, factories and other commercial and institutional establishments. Internationally the market for solar water heaters has expanded significantly during the last decade.
Salient Features of Solar Water Heating System
Solar Hot Water System turns cold water into hot water with the help of sun’s rays.
A 100 liters capacity SWH can replace an electric geyser for residential use and saves 1500 units of electricity annually.
Avoided utility cost on generation
The use of 1000 SWHs of 100 liters capacity each can contribute to a peak loa d shaving of 1 MW.