a) Saubhagya Scheme
The Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (or Saubhagya)The scheme seeks to ensure universal household electrification (in both rural and urban areas) by providing last mile connectivity. The scheme is expected to households are un-electrified. A rural electrification scheme has also been under implementation since 2005. In light of this, we discuss the current situation of, and key issues related to rural electrification in the country.
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b) Rural Electrification by RE Sources under DDG Scheme
RGGVY has launched a scheme for DDG, for electrification of hamlets and habitations not being covered under the scheme on account of their remote locations. Decentralized distributed generation aims to deploy suitable locally available technologies for generation of electricity and distributing it to nearby hamlets or habitations. By nature, such projects rely more on small hydro and renewable sources. The Ministry of Power has published a set of guidelines consisting of a standardized format for preparation of DDG projects and guidelines for procurement of goods and services for implementing those projects. The scheme aims at identifying developers who will meet the electricity requirements of such villages and hamlets sustainably for five years and selecting those who require the least funding assistance. The salient features of the DDG guidelines issued in 2009 and subsequent amendments to the guidelines are summarized below. The technology suitable for DDG will be specified. The choices include both conventional sources (diesel generator sets) and local renewable sources, based on their cost-effectiveness and availability in required quantities. The projects of DDG will be owned by the state government, which, in turn, would decide the implementing agency for the state: either a state renewable energy development agency (SREDA) or the department responsible for promoting renewable energy, a state electricity utility or a central public-sector undertaking (CPSU).
JREDA is the Nodal Agency for implementation of rural electrification project for Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG)
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c) Solar Water Pump
Water pumping worldwide is generally dependent on conventional electricity or diesel generated electricity. Solar water pumping minimizes the dependence on diesel, gas or coal based electricity. The use of diesel or propane based water pumping systems require not only expensive fuels, but also create noise and air pollution. The overall upfront cost, operation and maintenance cost, and replacement of a diesel pump are 2–4 times higher than a solar photovoltaic (PV) pump. Solar pumping systems are environment friendly and require low maintenance with no fuel cost. Keeping in view the shortage of grid electricity in rural and remote areas in most parts of world, PV pumping is one of the most promising applications of solar energy. The technology is similar to any other conventional water pumping system except that the power source is solar energy. PV water pumping is gaining importance in recent years due to non-availability of electricity and increase in diesel prices. The flow rate of pumped water is dependent on incident solar radiation and size of PV array. A properly designed PV system results in significant long-term cost savings as compared to conventional pumping systems. Agricultural production is largely dependent on rains and is adversely affected by the nonavailability of water in summers. However, maximum solar radiation is available in summers as such more water can be pumped to meet increased water requirements. Urban water supply systems are also dependent on electricity to pump water in towns. There is a wide scope to utilize PV pumping systems for water supplies in rural, urban, community, industry and educational institutions.It works like any other pump set with the only difference being the solar energy used instead of nonrenewable energy for its operation. When sunlight falls on the solar panels it produces direct current (DC) which then feeds the motor to pump out the water. However, in thecase where the motor requires an alternating current (AC), the DC produced by solar panels is converted to AC using an inverter.
There are several different types of solar-powered pumps depending on how they have been classified.
There are certain criteria for selecting the location for both the solar panels and the pump. In thecase of the solar panels, they should be installed in an area which is shade free and has no dust or dirt has a low incidence of bird droppings and which can provide space for unrestricted tracking movement (keeping the orientation of the solar panels in the direction of maximum solar irradiation). Also, the surface where the panels are mounted should be even. Panels should be easily accessible for cleaning and should be as close as possible to the pump and water source.
The pumps should be located close to the solar panels but within the area to be irrigated. The suction lift for the pump should be low. If there are multiple water sources, the source with the highest water table should be chosen for placing the pump.
The advantages of solar water pumps over conventional electric pumps are given below:
d) Solar Street Light
Solar Street Lighting Systemis a lighting system for the illumination of streets & squares and cross roads located inareas that are not connected to the power grid. The standalone solar street lighting system comprises of a Solar Panel, Lead acid battery for Energy Storage, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) / LED as light source,suitable electronics and hard-ware like pole, battery box for fixing of these sub system. The system is controlled by a controller with automatic ON/OFF time switch, which control the light from dusk till morning or other setting time.
Solar Street Lightsare finding an increasing use in today’s world. It is an application of Solar energy which has gained popularity, owing to the rising electricity costs. Solar Street lights can be seen along the sides of roads. Solar Street Light receives the sunlight during daytime through which they light up during the night time. These look like lamp posts. The structure comprises of Photovoltaic cells/ panels, Rechargeable Battery, LED lamp and Light Pole.
Working Mechanism of Solar Street Lights
The solar energy from sun is absorbed by the photovoltaic cells/ panels on the street lights and are stored in the rechargeable battery, after converting the solar energy into electrical energy. During the night time, this energy lights up the lamp on the street lights. Again the next day the battery gets recharged. This is the working principle of the solar street lights.
Advantages of Using Solar Street Lights
1) Low Cost –Since solar lights use light from the sun for its operation, it is independent of the power grid. The cost is much lower as compared to electricity costs.
2) Clean and Green –The solar lights are an environment friendly way of lighting up the streets. They use clean energy from the sun for their working, hence there is no pollution and more energy saving.
3) Safe –Unlike the conventional street lights, there are no wires associated with the solar street lights and so there is less risk of accidents.
4) Low Maintenance –The maintenance associated with solar lights are very less as compared to the other street lights.
Type of solar street light
Each street light can have its own photo voltaic panel, independent of other street lights. Alternately, a number of panels can be installed as a central power source on a separate location and supply power to a number of street lights.All In One type Solar street lights are also gaining popularity. In this type the Solar panel, Lithium-ion battery and LED light are fitted together in a compact way. This enhances battery protection against theft and also the entire unit is weather proof.
e) Solar High Mast Light
A LED High Mast Light is a raised source of High illumination lights and with high intensity on the middle of major junctions (Ring roads, Outer Ring roads), turned on or lit automatically in the absence of light (at specified timings or at periodic times, every night). The function of LED High Mast Light is to provide safety and guidance of traffic and to provide secure and comfortable surroundings for the travelers. High MastLighting playsavital role in reducing accidents and crimes. Road and area lighting are essential components of mast lighting. Effectivelighting of outdoorspaces provides important benefits to all who are passing from that junction. High mast lighting is preferred over conventional lighting,because it can achieves very large space to height ratios. It can illuminate large areas without the need for numerous lighting columns. Modern lamps will also have light-sensitive photocells to turn them ON at duskand OFF at dawn, or activate automatically in dark weather.
Salient features of High Mast Lights: